New Pedagogies and Practices for Teaching in Higher Education Research has identified the importance of helping students develop the ability to monitor their own comprehension and to make their thinking processes explicit, and indeed demonstrates that metacognitive teaching strategies greatly improve student engagement with course material. This book -- by presenting principles that teachers in higher education can put into practice in their own classrooms -- explains how to lay the ground for this engagement, and help students become self-regulated learners actively employing metacognitive and reflective strategies in their education. Key elements include embedding metacognitive instruction in the content matter; being explicit about the usefulness of metacognitive activities to provide the incentive for students to commit to the extra effort; as well as following through consistently. Recognizing that few teachers have a deep understanding of metacognition and how it functions, and still fewer have developed methods for integrating it into their curriculum, this book offers a hands-on, user-friendly guide for implementing metacognitive and reflective pedagogy in a range of disciplines.
One of the most important discoveries is that Dewey was right: Two different studies, one led by Marsha C. Self-regulation, however, begins with self-awareness, noticing and active-monitoring. Simply being more transparent in class F2F! At the same time, Marsha C. Lovett, and her colleagues at Carnegie Mellon have demonstrated that exam wrappersprovide a quick and easy way to improve student learning, connect learning and thinking habits across disciplines.
Exam wrappers are a very short survey online or a single sheet of paper given to students with assignment or exam feedback. You can find their excellent examples of their math and science wrappers at www. It is not enough just to care, or just to have high standards, or even just to provide provocative situations for students.
Pedagogy and learning design are essential if we want to move students to more advanced models of thought. Note that metacognition is a complex set of skills including self-awareness knowing your strengths and weaknessesunderstanding learning goals, planning an approach to learning, monitoring, evaluating performance, reflecting and adjusting.
Metacognition like critical thinking is often discipline specific and is best learned with subject content: Repeated exposure to transparently announced and labeled critical thinking in different contexts, however, greatly helps students to create more transferrable thinking skills.
So cognitive wrappers provide an easy way to get your students thinking about how they learn and how they might self-regulate more. I think we might extend this idea in two ways. First, I work in an art school, and preparation for lessons, rehearsals, performances and classes, is just as important and requires just as much self-regulation as preparation for exams.
Why not use wrappers for some of these very different activities? Second, while not an explicit part of the Carnegie Mellow exam wrappers, some of their examples provide a rationale for the assignment, and are given to students at the beginning.
Here is a model for a four-part wrapper: This is only to help you improve. How did you prepare for this exam? What kinds of mistakes did you make?
How will you prepare differently next time? Wrappers work best when they are discipline specific, but used simultaneously in different contexts in different classes. How is studying for an art history exam different than practicing for a lesson or doing calculus homework? Students need both to understand that a self-regulation is a part of improving each of these activities and b the adjustments will be different for each type of learning.
Writing, for example, is activity that really consists of multiple types of work and preparation. So the wrapper for a paper might ask:1 PART I The Metacognitive Teaching Framework in Your Classroom T oday, most teachers focus some time each day on teaching reading comprehen-sion strategies.
analyzed using the Index for Metacognitive Knowledge in Critical Reflective Writing (IMK). Created by the researcher, the IMK is the first index of its kind because it.
With that in mind, consider the following three main reasons to teach metacognitive strategies. (Fogarty ): 1. To develop in students a deeper understanding of text. Good readers know how to use cognitive and metacognitive strategies together to develop a deeper understanding of a .
Teaching Metacognitive Skills Metacognition has been defined as “one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes or anything related to them” (Flavell, , in Kaplan et al., ) and is commonly referred to as “thinking about one’s thinking”.
Improving Student Writing Through Written Metacognitive Reflection NEATE Conference Dr. Michael Harten, Academic Dean, Woodstock Academy Metacognitive Reflection! Students’ level of metacognitive of acquiring and independently applying writing strategies” (Ferretti & Lewis, )!
Six Stages:! Develop Background Knowledge. The final weeks of the term can be an especially valuable time to engage students in reflective thinking about their learning. Often teachers use the end of the term as a time to review content, but you can also use this time of final projects and exam preparation to prompt student "metacognition," or critical thinking about their own learning processes.