History of the word and concept "information" The English word apparently derives from the Latin stem information- of the nominative informatio: Inform itself comes via French informer from the Latin verb informare, which means to give form, or to form an idea of. Furthermore, Latin itself already contained the word informatio meaning concept or idea, but the extent to which this may have influenced the development of the word information in English is not clear.
Chloroform undergoes further chlorination to yield carbon tetrachloride CCl4: Deuterated chloroform Deuterated chloroform is an isotopologue of chloroform with a single deuterium atom. Deuterochloroform is produced by the haloform reaction ,[ citation needed ] the reaction of acetone or ethanol with sodium hypochlorite or calcium hypochlorite.
Deuterochloroform can be prepared by the reaction of sodium deuteroxide with chloral hydrate. Bleaching with hypochlorite generates halogenated compounds in side reactions; chloroform is the main byproduct. Uses[ edit ] In terms of scale, the most important reaction of chloroform is with hydrogen fluoride to give monochlorodifluoromethane CFCa precursor in the production of polytetrafluoroethylene Teflon: Chlorodifluoromethane is then converted into tetrafluoroethylene, the main precursor to Teflon.
Before the Montreal Protocolchlorodifluoromethane designated as R was also a popular refrigerant. Solvent[ edit ] The hydrogen attached to carbon in chloroform participates in hydrogen bonding. Reagent[ edit ] As a reagentchloroform serves as a source of the dichloro carbene CCl2 group.
Alternatively, the carbene can be trapped by an alkene to form a cyclopropane derivative. In the Kharasch additionchloroform forms the CHCl2 free radical in addition to alkenes. Anesthetic[ edit ] Antique bottles of chloroform The anaesthetic qualities of chloroform were first described in in a thesis by Robert Mortimer Gloverwhich won the Gold Medal of the Harveian Society for that year.
Glover also undertook practical experiments on dogs to prove his theories. Glover further refined his theories and presented them in the thesis for his doctorate at the University of Edinburgh in the summer of The Scottish obstetrician James Young Simpson was one of the persons required to read the thesis, but later claimed to have never read the thesis and to have come to his conclusions independently.
On 4 NovemberSimpson first used the anesthetic qualities of chloroform on a pair of humans: This was done as an entertainment and not as a medical procedure. However, a knighthood for Simpson, and massive media coverage of the wonders of chloroform ensured that Simpson's reputation remained high, whilst the laboratory experiments proving the dangers of chloroform were largely ignored.
Gunning, who became one of the richest persons in Britain, endowed some 13 university scholarships under the names of other scientists rather than his own name. He considered Simpson a charlatan, but one of these prizes is named the Simpson Prize for Obstetrics.
It is, however, probably a strange reverse compliment, as arguably any Simpson prize in the wider public eye should be a prize for anaesthesia.
By not calling it this he effectively snubbed Simpson whilst at the same time appearing to honour him. In the s, chloroform was used during the birth of Queen Victoria 's last two children. Some people used chloroform as a recreational drug or to attempt suicide.
InHannah Greener, a year-old girl who was having an infected toenail removed, died after being given the anesthetic.
However, in John Snow developed an inhaler that regulated the dosage and so successfully reduced the number of deaths. Between and numerous commissions in Britain studied chloroform, but failed to come to any clear conclusions.
It was only in that Levy proved in experiments with animals that chloroform can cause cardiac fibrillation.
The reservations about chloroform could not halt its soaring popularity. In America, however, there was less enthusiasm for chloroform narcosis. In Germany, the first comprehensive surveys of the fatality rate during anesthesia were made by Gurlt between and InKillian gathered all the statistics compiled until then and found that the chances of suffering fatal complications under ether were between 1: The rise of gas anesthesia using nitrous oxideimproved equipment for administering anesthetics and the discovery of hexobarbital in led to the gradual decline of chloroform narcosis.
Joseph Harris was charged in with using chloroform to rob people. Holmes used chloroform overdoses to kill his female victims. In Septemberchloroform was also implicated in the murder of the American businessman William Marsh Ricethe namesake of the institution now known as Rice University.
Chloroform was also deemed a factor in the alleged murder of a woman in when she was asphyxiated while sleeping. However, it is nearly impossible to incapacitate someone using chloroform in this manner.
Most criminal cases involving chloroform also involve another drug being co-administered, such as alcohol or diazepamor the victim being found to have been complicit in its administration. After a person has lost consciousness due to chloroform inhalation, a continuous volume must be administered and the chin must be supported to keep the tongue from obstructing the airway, a difficult procedure typically requiring the skills of an anesthesiologist.
In as a direct result of the criminal reputation chloroform had gained, medical journal The Lancet offered a "permanent scientific reputation" to anyone who could demonstrate "instantaneous insensibility" using chloroform. Accidental splashing into the eyes has caused irritation.
Other metabolites of chloroform include hydrochloric acid and digluathionyl dithiocarbonatewith carbon dioxide as the predominant end product of metabolism.Learn the latest GIS technology through free live training seminars, self-paced courses, or classes taught by Esri experts.
Resources are available for professionals, educators, and students. Announcing an Informational Forum for the , Health Care Claim Data Reporting Acknowledgment (X) X12 will conduct an informational forum related to the above implementation guide on Wednesday, December 5, at PM ET.
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END OF CHAPTER QUESTIONS QUICKBOOKS B 9. If a customer has a balance for an amount owed and a return is made, a credit memo is prepared and. Purchase Information regarding an item sold by the company is entered.
A. in the Invoice Register B. when adding a sales item. FavIcon Generator. Use this online tool to easily create a favicon (favorites icon) for your site. A favicon is a small, 16x16 image that is shown inside the browser's location bar .
Chapter 6: The Information Function I = 1 Calculation of the item information under the Rasch model, b = The general level of the amount of information yielded by this item is somewhat lower than that of the previous example.
This is a reflection of the.