Structuralism and Semiotics Structuralism Structuralism is a way of thinking about the world which is predominantly concerned with the perceptions and description of structures. At its simplest, structuralism claims that the nature of every element in any given situation has no significance by itself, and in fact is determined by all the other elements involved in that situation. The full significance of any entity cannot be perceived unless and until it is integrated into the structure of which it forms a part Hawkes, p. Structuralists believe that all human activity is constructed, not natural or "essential.
Die Traumdeutung The father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud is best known for his tendency to trace nearly all psychological problems back to sexual issues. Other now-famous Freudian innovations include the therapy couch, the use of talk therapy to resolve psychological problems, and his theories about the unconscious -- including the role of repression, denial, sublimation, and projection.
Initially a Viennese medical doctor, Freud was trained in neurology, and he originally drew inspiration from the work of Charles Darwin which explained behavior in evolutionary terms.
Then located in the Austrian Empire, the region is now part of the Czech Republic. Amalia also bore several children, eight including her first born and favorite, Sigmund.
He distinguished himself with intellectual brilliance from an early age, routinely excelled in school, and was aided by his parents in pursuing every educational advantage that they could afford. He was overall, their most favored child.
From the age of four onward, Sigmund Freud grew up in Vienna. By age eight he was reading Shakespeare. At age seventeen he began attending the University of Vienna, graduating in with a degree in medicine.
Thus Freud started out with the belief that physiology and evolution determined behavior. He felt that the secrets of behavior dysfunction therefore, were likely to be revealed through a physical, scientific study of the brain and its related systems.
And he was eager to further explore this area.
It was during this period that he began his studies into a promising new drug, cocaine, which he believed would become a common treatment for depression -- and perhaps even for other ailments, including indigestion. He himself became an enthusiastic user of cocaine, also handing it out to colleagues and relations including his sisters and praising its merits in various scholarly papers.
Freud occasionally referred patients to Fleiss for this procedure, most notably Emma Eckstein whose treatment went tragically awry. But Freud himself was beginning to move away from a purely medical approach to psychiatry. Hysteria now called conversion disorder most typically afflicted women and was marked by a variety of physical and behavioral symptoms, for which physicians were unable to find any medical cause.
It is worth noting that hysteria, in women, became a particularly common diagnosis in Victorian times, and it has been speculated that many of these women may have been suffering from extreme sexual frustration -- a theory lent credence by the fact that a goodly number of these women gained temporary relief from their symptoms by visiting the physician for clitoral "massage.
Armed with this insight, Freud returned to Vienna where he established a private practice specializing in nervous and brain disorders. More importantly, once the patient had recalled and verbalized the particular problematic experience or belief, the symptoms disappeared.
This experience with hypnotherapy made Freud a staunch proponent of this catharsis or "talking cure", as a way to alleviate or remove hysteria and neurosis.
But he soon found that actual hypnotism was unnecessary with most patients. Rather, he came to develop his own distinctive approach. As part of this he invented a "therapy couch", a comfortable bed-like piece of furniture, on which the patient could recline and deeply relax, while the therapist sat close by for conversation and note taking.
This was used as substitute for the relaxing properties of hypnotherapy.
In addition he developed the now famous technique of "free association" -- encouraging the patient to speak aloud about any thoughts or images that drifted into their awareness. To this he later added the use of dream analysis, the use of journals or diaries, and even what we now call "the Freudian slip" -- i.The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
New Criticism. A literary movement that started in the late s and s and originated in reaction to traditional criticism that new critics saw as largely concerned with matters extraneous to the text, e.g., with the biography or psychology of the author or the work's relationship to literary history.
His The Psychopathology of Everyday Life was published in , and his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality was published in In the s, Freud finally emerged from the isolation that had characterized his professional life in the s.
He began to have weekly meetings at his house to discuss psychoanalytic theory. Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (German: Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie), sometimes titled Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex, is a work by Sigmund Freud which advanced his theory of sexuality, in particular its relation to childhood.
Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. The Iliad is an epic poem in dactylic hexameters, traditionally attributed to Homer.
Set in the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of Ilium by a coalition of .