Achieving sustainable development Paragraphs 6 to 17 International and national bodies have set out broad principles of sustainable development. The purpose of the planning system is to contribute to the achievement of sustainable development. There are three dimensions to sustainable development: These dimensions give rise to the need for the planning system to perform a number of roles:
More than million acres of forestland in the U. Certificates of Completion for non-AIA members are available on request. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product.
Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
According to the Rainforest Alliance, sources of this material include: At a practical level, using environmentally certified and reclaimed lumber can, in some cases, save significant construction dollars, in addition to offering a green marketing advantage, according to the Natural Resources Defense Council NRDC handbook, Efficient Wood Use in Residential Construction.
Another attraction of reclaimed wood materials is purely aesthetic. Yet another green trend is the increasing Life-cycle analysis: The environmental proof of wood The results are in: According to the Athena Model, wood is a greener choice than steel and concrete, based on its life cycle attributes.
Compared to the energy required to produce a ton of wood, it takes: In general, engineered wood—whether plywood, medium-density fiberboard, or prefabricated I-joists, boards, and beams—is a more efficient use of wood and relies less on large-diameter, old-growth deciduous trees.
In addition, some engineered wood products outperform wood in terms of resistance to cracking, shrinkage, and warping, as well as offering a high degree of strength.
On the other side of the coin, the use of imported wood and rare hardwoods, despite their attractiveness and elegance, is often criticized for originating from non-certified, poorly managed forests, primarily in less well-developed tropical countries. The AIA predicts that all tropical forests could be depleted by the middle of the 21st century.
Other environmental concerns for wood-related products relate to health issues concerning toxic finishes. Although awareness has increased in recent years, leading to a surge in materials and finishes low in volatile organic compounds VOCs and free of aromatic solvents, heavy metals, or suspected cancer-causing chemicals, Building Teams must be armed with the relevant information before specifying.
VOCs and their by-products can cause eye and skin irritation, lung and breathing problems, headaches, nausea, muscle weakness, and liver and kidney damage, according to the American Lung Association. In addition, VOCs released into the atmosphere can combine with each other and with other substances to create ground-level ozone.
Public awareness and health policy have spurred on the development of alternative wood finishes, namely water-based coatings that contain no VOCs and closely resemble traditional wood coatings in appearance.
Structural systems Wood brings many environmental benefits—and some noteworthy drawbacks—to the construction of buildings, whether for the structural system, the building exterior and fenestration, or the interior flooring and finished carpentry. Biophilia bodes well for wood Biophilia, a term coined by German psychologist Erich Fromm and popularized by American biologist Edward O.
Wilson, is an instinctive bond that exists between human beings and other living systems. Sincewith funding committed throughthe government has subsidized school construction projects that incorporate wood, resulting in a significant increase in timber-framed schools and an even greater number of schools incorporating wood-based interior finishes, such as floors, walls, and ceilings.
On the production side, lumber mills make extremely efficient use of wood through engineered lumber solutions, culled wood programs, and scrap recovery, which essentially make use of the entire tree.
The versatility and abundance of wood has led to its dominance in low-rise construction, particularly for residential, hospitality, and retail uses.
It can easily be shaped, sanded, repaired, replaced, stained, or painted. When it comes to expansions, wood framing is extraordinarily malleable and forgiving, whereas other materials, such as concrete and steel, may require demolition and high-energy means for retrofitting, which often carry considerable expense.
On the other hand, wood does have some limitations with regard to structural capacity. Even so, says Dickinson, recycled and pre-engineered wood products will not work for every project application: Architects and engineers are quick to point out, however, that hybrid wood products offer several significant benefits over solid wood timber and wood frame construction.
For example, says Dickinson, engineered wood members lend themselves to more predictable, regular, and accurate structural calculations.
Once installed, the products are more dimensionally stable, meaning that tolerances and margins of error are greatly reduced. Dickinson maintains that wood is very competitive with light-gauge steel framing and that heavy timber actually requires less fireproofing than true light-gauge steel.
Also, the Natural Resources Defense Council points out that light-gauge steel studs require considerable energy in manufacture, and that the thermal performance of steel-framed homes has typically been poor. This leads to two sustainability concerns: Traditional detailing of light-gauge steel as a component of structural wall assemblies raises other performance questions, says Jennifer Duthie, National Wood Works technical coordinator with the Canadian Wood Council: With wood-framed wall systems, you have structural capacity, insulation, and acoustic properties, as well as aesthetic beauty.
Recent hikes in steel prices make wood more affordable than ever. And even with pressure treatment and the use of substantial overhangs and other architectural protections, treated wood will tend to degrade over time unless kept fairly aggressively coated with something which shunts ultraviolet and water exposure.3.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Development and Sustainability Greening the City Healthy Communities, Healthy Island Sustainable Communities 4.
URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES Urban Environmental Management Environmental Problems Policy Messages Strategies . Basic concept. Smart Growth is a theory of land development that accepts that growth and development will continue to occur, and so seeks to direct that growth in an intentional, comprehensive way.
Its proponents include urban planners, architects, developers, community activists, . Today, the role of designers (town planners, architects, transportation planning professionals, engineers) is not just limited to designing towns and cities to take in traffic but to focus on reduces the number of cars in a way acceptable to people.
The first formal round of Shell scenarios was completed in November Since then Shell’s scenario planners have produced 34 rounds of global and long-term energy scenarios and updates and.
That's not to say that sustainable living should only focus on people who live in urban centres though, there are improvements to be made everywhere - it is estimated that we use about 40% more resources every year than we can put back and that needs to change (3, p2).
Sustainability and sustainable development focuses on balancing that . Chapter 23 - The role of nongovernmental organizations in extension. John Farrington. John Farrington. is an agricultural economist and Director of the Rural Resources and Poverty Research Programme at the Overseas Development Institute in London.