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Traditional method[ edit ] A proof is a typeset version of copy or a manuscript page. They often contain typos introduced through human error. Traditionally, a proofreader looks at an increment of text on the copy and then compares it to the corresponding typeset increment, and then marks any errors sometimes called 'line edits' using standard proofreaders' marks.
Proofs are then Proofreading to the typesetter or graphic artist for correction. Correction-cycle proofs will typically have one descriptive term, such as 'bounce', 'bump', or 'revise' unique to the department or organization and used for clarity to the strict exclusion of any other.
It is a common practice for 'all' such corrections, no matter how slight, to be sent again to a proofreader to be checked and initialed, Proofreading establishing the principle of higher responsibility for proofreaders as compared to their typesetters or artists.
When somebody does the proofreading for another person they also like to read first for themselves and then for other people so they can also understand the meaning. Proofreading is when a person wants to read first what they have written into their Newspaper, documentation paper, etc.
Alternative methods[ edit ] 'Copy holding' or 'copy reading' employs two readers per proof. The first reads the text aloud literally as it appears, usually at a comparatively fast but uniform rate.
The second reader follows along and marks any pertinent differences between what is read and what was typeset. This method is appropriate for large quantities of boilerplate text where it is assumed that the number of errors will be comparatively small.
Experienced copy holders employ various codes and verbal short-cuts that accompany their reading. The spoken word 'digits', for example, means that the numbers about to be read are not words spelled out; and 'in a hole' can mean that the upcoming segment of text is within parentheses.
A 'thump' or 'screamer' made with a finger on the table represents the initial capcommaperiodor similar obvious attribute being read simultaneously. Thus the line of text: He said the address was Central Blvd. Mutual understanding is the only guiding principle, so codes evolve as opportunity permits.
In the above example, two thumps after 'buluhvuhd' might be acceptable to proofreaders familiar with the text. A single proofreader checks a proof in the traditional manner but then passes it on to a second reader who repeats the process.
Both initial the proof. Note that with both copy holding and double reading, responsibility for a given proof is necessarily shared by two individuals. Many publishers have their own proprietary typesetting systems,  while their customers use commercial programs such as Word.The term proofreading is used in genetics to refer to the error-correcting processes, first proposed by John Hopfield and Jacques Ninio, involved in DNA replication, immune system specificity, enzyme-substrate recognition among many other processes that require enhanced specificity.
The proofreading mechanisms of Hopfield and Ninio are non-equilibrium active processes that consume ATP to. The world leader in online proofreading and editing services.
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