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End to Population Growth: We are far from a world in which all births result from intended pregnancies. It is estimated that million women in developing countries are sexually active, but don't want to become pregnant; in other words, they have an unmet need for family planning. For various reasons they are not using contraception.
If all births resulted from women actively intending to conceive, fertility would immediately fall slightly below the replacement level; world population would peak within a few decades and subsequently decline.
It is not expensive to help all women to be in fully control of the timing and frequency of their childbearing. The key obstacles are religious, cultural, and political opposition to contraception or the possibility of population decline.
More research and a public better educated about sexuality and reproduction could engender a global social movement that would make possible a world of intended pregnancies and births. Before, we didn't know how to control pregnancy, we didn't have the education, and people in the area were having nine or ten children.
We have 18 families and no one has more than three children. The health of the children and mothers has improved, and so has the spacing of babies. Everyone understands the importance of family planning now.
This holistic view has helped slow the increase in world population. The average family has declined from six children in to around three today.
Education and improved health for women and access to contraception are vital. Smaller families are healthier families and improve the prospects of each generation. Since more women have access to education and other rights, and more early-marriage traditions are being opposed.
Most countries have laws prohibiting violence against women, female genital mutilation, and other violations of human rights. The Two Parts of Sustainability Are Consumption and Population The world could possibly reduce consumption down to a very basic level, but if population keeps growing, eventually that will not be enough.
Even today many are living on a sub-sustainable level, due in part to an uneven distribution of resources, but also because, in many regions, population has outgrown essential resources for that region. When people feel threatened by a hand-to-mouth existence, they are more likely to look towards less-than democratic ways to reduce population, especially if they have the foresight to realize that population growth is like a run-away train, very difficult to slow and stop.
However, more and more evidence is showing that the methods that work the best towards reducing population growth, are the methods established by the principles of the Cairo Conference in United Nations International Conference on Population and Development ICPD SeptemberCairo, Egyptwhich include: Empowering women and girls in the economic, political, and social arenas; b.
Removing gender disparities in education; c. Integrating family planning with related efforts to improve maternal and child health; and d.
Removal of 'target' family sizes. Iran has more than halved its fertility rate in a decade. The benefits of modern contraceptives to women's health, including non-contraceptive benefits of specific methods, outweigh the risks.
In addition, contraception helps lengthen the interval of birth spacing, improving perinatal outcomes and child survival. Greater-than-average risk to maternal, perinatal, and child survival is associated with pregnancies at very young 34 years maternal ages, at high parities, and with short interpregnancy intervals, and with pregnancies that would have ended in unsafe abortion.
It ties directly to fertility rates and thus quantify the risk of maternal death per woman. It is indicative of risk per pregnancy due to poor access to and quality of obstetric services.
It also responds to fertility rates, which can affect the proportion of births to women with greater-than-average obstetric risk. MMRatios tend to be raised at parity 1, then become lowered at paritiesthen raised again atand highest at parities greater than 6. Raised maternal mortality risks at high parities have been seen in Pakistan, Senegal, and west Africa.
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