Fear is an extremely powerful motivator. If you are scared about your safety or the safety of your family and friends, you are likely to take the most obvious protective action quickly without wasting time studying the nuances of your possible options. This 'fight or flight' response is one of our most primitive survival strategies, and it is difficult to counter fear with a calmly considered discussion. I intend to try, however, and if you are reading this page because you have heard that community water fluoridation is dangerous to your health and ineffective, I encourage you to set aside your fears and consider the following content with an open mind.
Relationship between alcohol-attributable disease and socioeconomic status, and the role of alcohol consumption in this relationship: BMC Public Health Previous research has shown a gradient in the risks of ill health by SES such that those with low personal or neighbourhood SES are much more likely to die or suffer from a range of diseases, including those related to alcohol e.
For example, males and females in the most socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods of the UK have been estimated to be two to three times as likely to die from an alcohol-related condition than their counterparts living in the least deprived Deacon et al.
However, analysis of alcohol use behaviours suggests that there is little difference in consumption between these types of areas. We have termed the observation that deprived populations that apparently consume the same or less alcohol than more affluent populations suffer far greater levels of harm the alcohol harm paradox.
A number of explanations are hypothesised as to why this might occur, including: Under-reporting or inaccurate reporting of alcohol use in low SES groups, or by heavy drinkers in low SES groups, compared to less deprived groups.
Differences in drinking patterns between SES groups, rather than differences in intake e. Compounding due to clustering of unhealthy behaviours and associated risk factors in more deprived neighbourhoods. Differential access to, and quality of, health services and other neighbourhood resources such as alcohol outlets.
A poverty gradient through which unhealthy heavy drinkers move into poverty through loss of employment. This research explored some of these explanations in order to determine whether the alcohol harm paradox was robust, and to try and understand how it arises.
Methods The research proceeded through a number of interlinked activities: Firstly, we undertook a systematic reviews and meta-analysis of evidence in order to examine the relationship between SES factors and alcohol-related harm.
Review questions focused on i alcohol related disease; ii alcohol related mortality and morbidity. We then reviewed relevant evidence in order to try and develop Alcohol Attributable Fractions AAF; the proportion of a disease or injury that could be prevented if exposure to alcohol was eliminated for specific drinking patterns and SES.
Secondary analysis of existing data: After reviewing a number of existing population surveys we chose to reanalyse the General Lifestyle Survey GLF in order to explore the relationship between i drinking behaviours, individual SES, and neighbourhood SES; ii heavy drinking, individual SES, and neighbourhood SES; iii beverage preference, individual SES and neighbourhood SES; and iv drinking behaviour, self-rated health, health service use, and neighbourhood deprivation.
Development of a new method to assess self-reported alcohol use in general population surveys: We subsequently undertook a telephone survey of the English adult population. Data was obtained from individuals By comparing estimates of typical and combined alcohol use we were able to determine whether underreporting was related to SES and other factors.
Findings Our systematic literature review showed differing relationships between a range of alcohol-attributable conditions and socioeconomic indicators.
A key consideration of the review was the small number of published studies available that had explored the interaction between alcohol-attributable disease, socioeconomic status, and alcohol use. However, it was possible to conclude that low, relative to high socioeconomic status, was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancers, strokes, hypertension, and in individual studies, with liver disease and preterm birth.
Conversely, risk of female breast cancer tended to be associated with higher socioeconomic status. These findings remained after controlling for a number of known risk factors for these diseases and other potential confounding factors. In studies that controlled for alcohol use, addition of this variable to the statistical models explained a substantial proportion of the difference in risk between high and low SES groups for stroke risk, preterm birth, and in combination with smoking, head and neck cancer risk.
This suggested that for these conditions at least, alcohol use was an important contributory factor in the association between SES and disease. Our meta-analysis examined the association between SES, alcohol related deaths and hospital admissions.Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
The disorder was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions are present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time. Alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence are not only adult problems, but they also affect a significant number of adolescents and young adults between the ages of 12 and 20, even though drinking under the age of 21 is illegal (Califano ).
Faculty could theoretically provide a positive influence on student drinking behavior, but there is little evidence in the literature that faculty norms and expectations about avoiding alcohol misuse are effectively communicated to students.
Welcome! Welcome to the web pages of the Atlanta Central Office of Alcoholics Anonymous.
The Central Office, by A.A. tradition, exists primarily as a service organization. Christian views on alcohol are varied. Throughout the first 1, years of Church history, Christians generally consumed alcoholic beverages as a common part of everyday life and used "the fruit of the vine" in their central rite—the Eucharist or Lord's Supper.
They held that both the Bible and Christian tradition taught that alcohol is a gift from God that makes life more joyous, but that.
Topic Binge Drinking “Alcohol Consumption is a major public health concern. Discuss how it is a subject of government, media and medical scrutiny” Relevant articles Too published this.