We crossed at the narrowest part of the river.
And what a success it has been! We might still be waiting for the first female president, but women—specifically feminists—are now in positions of power across the whole of society.
Yet feminism shows no sign of taking early retirement and bowing out, job done. Instead, it continues to reinvent itself. MeToo is the cause du jour of fourth-wave feminism but, disturbingly, it seems to be taking us further from liberation and pushing us towards an increasingly illiberal and authoritarian future.
Over the past five decades, women have taken public life by storm. When it comes to education, employment, and pay, women are not just doing better than ever before—they are often doing better than men too. For over a quarter of a century, girls have outperformed boys at school.
More women than men continue to graduate school and more doctorates are awarded to women. Since the s, there has been a marked increase in the number of women in employment and many are taking managerial and professional positions.
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|You are here||He is the John M. The book was originally published as a hardcover edition in|
|What is second-wave feminism?||Christine de Pizan presents her book to Queen Isabeau of Bavaria.|
|Thomas denied the accusations, calling them a "high-tech lynching". After extensive debate, the United States Senate voted 52—48 in favor of Thomas.|
Women now comprise just over half of those employed in management, professional, and related occupations. For younger women in particular, the gender pay gap is narrowing.
Some data sets now suggest that women in their twenties earn more than men the same age. Although high-profile equal pay campaigns appear to suggest otherwise, when we compare the pay of men and women employed in the same jobs and working for the same number of hours each week, the gender pay gap all but disappears.
Four out of every 10 women are now either the sole or primary family earner—a figure which has quadrupled since But this is not just about the lives of women: Making sense of the world through the prism of gender and seeking to root out sexual inequality is now the driving force behind much that goes on in the public sphere.
Back inin one of the first examples of new legislation explicitly backed by feminists, the Supreme Court ruled that sexual harassment is a form of sex discrimination.
This has had a profound impact upon all aspects of employment legislation. Elsewhere, the influence of feminism can be seen in the expansion of existing laws. When Title IX of the Education Amendments was passed in it was designed to protect people from discrimination based on sex in education programs that received federal funding.
It was a significant—and reasonably straightforward—piece of legislation introduced at a time when women were underrepresented in higher education.
It first began to take on greater significance following a case led by the feminist lawyer and academic Catharine MacKinnon in which a federal court found that colleges could be liable under Title IX not just for acts of discrimination but also for not responding to allegations of sexual harassment.
Not surprisingly, definitions of sexual harassment began to expand in the late s. By this measure, sexual harassment can occur unintentionally and with no specific target. As a result, colleges became responsible for policing the sexual behavior of their students too. Pressing forward under the Obama administration, sexual misconduct cases on campuses were tried under a preponderance of the evidence standard rather than a higher standard of clear and convincing evidence.
Within these extrajudicial tribunals, students—most often young men—could be found guilty of sexual assault or rape and expelled following unsubstantiated allegations and with little opportunity to defend themselves. Although current Education Secretary Betsy DeVos has revoked the Obama-era guidelines that instituted these kangaroo courts, many institutions under pressure to react have expanded their zero tolerance policies, often at the expense of basic due process and fairness.
In the s, radical feminists opposed the Equal Rights Amendment, arguing that it individualized and deradicalized feminism.
This places the onus on the accused to prove they had sought and obtained consent; in other words they must prove their innocence. This is a radical shift, yet it is being enshrined in legislation with little discussion.Riding the Second Wave: How Feminism Changed Women's Psychology and Mine [Ph.D, Jessica Heriot] on benjaminpohle.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
In her new exploration of the impact feminism has had on her life, Jessica Heriot, PhD, explains the . Dr. Kristi Siegel Associate Professor, English Dept.
Director, English Graduate Program Chair - Languages, Literature, and Communication Division. “Maybe the fourth wave is online,” said feminist Jessica Valenti in , and that’s come to be one of the major ideas of fourth-wave feminism.
Online is where activists meet and plan their.
But the social, cultural and psychological issues that fourth-wave feminism aims to address are also more complex and harder to grasp—leading to disagreement among feminists over which issues should be . The radical student extremism of the '60s evolved into radical activism for minority rights, feminism, homosexuality, environmentalism and animal rights.
Although the New Left may be said to have collapsed "on account of its internal incoherence and amorphous program, and because its revolutionary rhetoric and proclivity for violence repelled most Americans," it's legacy and agents are. Feminism, in its second wave, women’s liberation movement guise, has passed its first half century.
And what a success it has been! Betty Friedan’s frustrated housewife, bored with plumping.