Plot The novel is propelled through its hundred or thousand pages by a device known as the story or plot. This is frequently conceived by the novelist in very simple terms, a mere nucleus, a jotting on an old envelope: The dramatist may take his plot ready-made from fiction or biography—a form of theft sanctioned by Shakespeare—but the novelist has to produce what look like novelties. At the lowest level of fiction, plot need be no more than a string of stock devices for arousing stock responses of concern and excitement in the reader.
Haydn presided over the busy musical life of the court, producing operasoratoriosand symphonic and chamber concerts, and writing a steady stream of new music for the prince's amusement. While the palace itself was one of the most splendid in Austria, and was dubbed the "Hungarian Versailles",  it was built over a large swamp; it was humid throughout the year, with a "vexatious, penetrating north wind"  from which Haydn and the other musicians in the court suffered.
Moreover, it was far from Vienna, and the musicians Haydn, as Kapellmeister, excepted had to leave their wives and families behind for many months. Consequently, there was much discontent among the musicians, and Haydn, like the others, suffered from bouts of depression and illness.
This atmosphere found its expression in the opus 20 quartets. In particular, the fifth quartet is in the unusual key of F minor, "a key that predisposes even Haydn to sombre thoughts," writes Cobbett.
It was a time of ferment: Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau expounded a philosophy of human freedom and a return to nature. Poets Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller espoused the new Sturm und Drang movement, that "exalted nature, feeling, and human individualism and sought to overthrow the Enlightenment cult of Rationalism".
Analysts trace specific musical choices in the opus 20 quartets to these new ideas. For example, the minuet movement of the D major quartet number 4 is replaced by a frenetic gypsy air titled "alla zingarese", full of offbeat rhythms.
Haydn showed himself in complete sympathy with this tendency," writes Geiringer. Counterpointthe densely complex style of the Baroquehad fallen out of favor with the galante composers.
The most commonly used Urtext edition is by Eulenburgpublished in the s. Opus 20 and the development of the string quartet[ edit ] When Haydn published his opus 33 quartetsten years after the opus 20, he wrote that they were composed in "an entirely new and particular manner".
In this set of quartets, Haydn defined the nature of the string quartet — the special interplay of instruments that Goethe called "four rational people conversing". Equality of voices[ edit ] Section of No. The melody was carried by the leader, with the lower voices viola and cello accompanying.
In opus 20, Haydn gives each instrument, and particularly the cello, its own voice. An outstanding example of this is the second quartet in C major. The quartet opens with a cello solo, accompanied by the viola and second violin. This was virtually unheard of in Haydn's time. Another example is in the slow movement of the fourth quartet, in D major.
This movement is a set of variationswritten in D minor; the first variation is a duet between viola and second violin, and the third variation is a solo for cello.
Structural innovations[ edit ] With the opus 20 quartets, Haydn moved forward the development of the sonata form. A movement written in sonata form has an expositionwhere the themes and motifs of the movement are presented; a development section, where these themes are transformed; and a recapitulationwhere the themes are restated.
Traditionally, the restatement closely matched the original exposition. But Haydn, in opus 20, uses the restatement to further develop the material of the movement.
For example, in the F minor quartet, Haydn embellishes the original theme, and rearranges the original material, adding to the musical tension as the movement moves to the coda.Rhodes is a national, highly selective college committed to the liberal arts and sciences.
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Stream ad-free or purchase CD's and MP3s now on benjaminpohle.com A memoir of the trip to New York City for the Sam Rivers, Dave Holland, and Barry Altschul concert at Columbia University's Miller Theatre, May 25th, Documents used in researching this project. This study has not been carried out with the rigour which would usually characterise an academic research subject.
The String Quartet No. 2 is a string quartet in D major written by Alexander Borodin in It was dedicated to his wife Ekaterina Protopova.
Some scholars, such as Borodin's biographer Serge Dianin, suggest that the quartet was a 20th anniversary gift and that it has a program evoking the couple's first meeting in Heidelberg.
Of its four movements, the third movement "Notturno" is the most. String quartets are the aristocrat of classical music. This is the genre in which composers often do their best work.
Oddly, Dvorák seldom gets his due as a quartet composer.