Salt and issued in London in Government is only an expedient — a means of attaining an end. It exists because the people have chosen it to execute their will, but it is susceptible to misuse.
Josiah Warren For American anarchist historian Eunice Minette Schuster, American individualist anarchism "stresses the isolation of the individual—his right to his own tools, his mind, his body, and to the products of his labor.
To the artist who embraces this philosophy it is ' aesthetic ' anarchism, to the reformer, ethical anarchism, to the independent mechanic, economic anarchism.
The former is concerned with philosophy, the latter with practical demonstration. The economic anarchist is Critical essays on henry david thoreau with constructing a society on the basis of anarchism. Economically he sees no harm whatever in the private possession of what the individual produces by his own labor, but only so much and no more.
The aesthetic and ethical type found expression in the transcendentalismhumanitarianismand romanticism of the first part of the nineteenth century, the economic type in the pioneer life of the West during the same period, but more favorably after the Civil War ".
The great majority of Americans during this time were farmers working their own land, primarily for their own needs" and so "individualist anarchism is clearly a form of artisanal socialism After success of his British venture, Owen himself established a cooperative community within the United States at New Harmony, Indiana during One member of this commune was Josiah Warren —considered to be the first individualist anarchist.
After New Harmony failed Warren shifted his ideological loyalties from socialism to anarchism which was no great leap, given that Owen's socialism had been predicated on Godwin's anarchism ". Warren termed the phrase " Cost the limit of price ", with "cost" here referring not to monetary price paid but the labor one exerted to produce an item.
They could exchange the notes at local time stores for goods that took the same amount of time to produce". The store proved successful and operated for three years after which it was closed so that Warren could pursue establishing colonies based on mutualism. These included " Utopia " and " Modern Times ".
Warren said that Stephen Pearl Andrews ' The Science of Society, published inwas the most lucid and complete exposition of Warren's own theories. Greene Henry David Thoreau — was an important early influence in individualist anarchist thought in the United States and Europe.
Thoreau was an American author, poet, naturalist, tax resister, development criticsurveyor, historian, philosopher and leading transcendentalist. Civil Disobedience Resistance to Civil Government is an essay by Thoreau that was first published in It argues that people should not permit governments to overrule or atrophy their consciences, and that people have a duty to avoid allowing such acquiescence to enable the government to make them the agents of injustice.
Thoreau was motivated in part by his disgust with slavery and the Mexican—American War. In his book Waldenhe advocates simple living and self-sufficiency among natural surroundings in resistance to the advancement of industrial civilization: For George Woodcock this attitude can be also motivated by certain idea of resistance to progress and of rejection of the growing materialism which is the nature of American society in the midth century".
Readings and Reflections from Greene presented this Proudhonian Mutualism in its purest and most systematic form". Greene is best known for the works Mutual Bankingwhich proposed an interest-free banking system; and Transcendentalism, a critique of the New England philosophical school.
Afterhe became active in labor reform  and was elected vice president of the New England Labor Reform League, the majority of the members holding to Proudhon's scheme of mutual banking, and in president of the Massachusetts Labor Union.
For this reason he demands "mutuality" in marriage—the equal right of a woman to her own personal freedom and property".
Andrews was formerly associated with the Fourierist movement, but converted to radical individualism after becoming acquainted with the work of Warren. Like Warren, he held the principle of "individual sovereignty" as being of paramount importance.
He syncretized abolitionismFree Lovespiritual universalism, Warren, and Fourier into a grand utopian scheme he called the Universal Pantarchy The latter became as famous as the best-known fourierist communes Brook Farm in Massachusetts and the North American Phalanx in New Jersey — in fact, Modern Times became downright notorious for "Free Love" and finally foundered under a wave of scandalous publicity.
Andrews and Victoria Woodhull were members of the infamous Section 12 of the 1st Internationalexpelled by Marx for its anarchist, feminist, and spiritualist tendencies". Free love particularly stressed women's rights since most sexual laws discriminated against women: Lazarus was an important American individualist anarchist who promoted free love.
He advocated free love and committed adultery frequently. The Comstock Act specifically prohibited the public, printed discussion of any topics that were considered "obscene, lewd, or lascivious," and discussing rape, although a criminal matter, was deemed obscene.
A Topeka district attorney eventually handed down indictments. In FebruaryHarman, now the sole producer of Lucifer, was again arrested on charges resulting from a similar article written by a New York physician.
As a result of the original charges, Harman would spend large portions of the next six years in prison. InLucifer was moved to Chicago; however, legal harassment continued.
Sentenced to a year of hard laborthe year-old editor's health deteriorated greatly.The British were certainly not the first to believe that they were superior to other groups.
What they introduced, which is at the core of the concept of race, is that superiority and inferiority were located in the body itself and passed on through reproduction.
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Excerpt: Henry David Thoreau, Walden It matters not what the clocks say or the attitudes and labors of men. Morning is when I am awake and there is a dawn in me. Moral reform is the effort to throw off sleep. With these words, Henry David Thoreau began the tale of his experiment of simple living at Walden Pond.
Over the course of the next three hundred-odd pages, Thoreau outlined his philosophy of life, politics, and nature, laying the foundation for a secure place in the canon of great American writers.