Dating from the s, the first generation of reflection focused on identifying and describing internal cognitive processes assumed to be part of composing. The second generation, operating in both classroom and assessment scenes in the s, developed mechanisms for externalizing reflection, making it visible and thus explicitly available to help writers. Now, a third generation of work in reflection is emerging.
Journal of the Singapore Armed Forces, Vol. Relevance defines impact, for only that which is relevant endures as a legacy, and a legacy expresses an impact. Clausewitz defined war as "an act of violence to compel our opponent to fufill our will".
Clausewitz's "absolute war" is a Platonic ideal, to which "real war" only approximates.
Clausewitz consequently suggested the need for political and military leaders to work co-operatively; for public opinion to be managed; for military commanders, because of the need to overcome "friction" and chance in war, to display "genius"13 ; and for the army to possess a strong will because while combat tests moral and physical forces, "the physical is but only the wooden hilt, whereas the moral factor is the A "centre of gravity" is that part of an enemy which, if destroyed, will cause his collapse, since it is "the hub of all power and movement, on which everything depends".
Impact may be distinguished between "influencing" and "direct". Where the impact is "influencing", it has provided a paradigm for evaluating strategy. Where it is "direct", it has resulted in elements of Clausewitz's thinking being operationalised in specific approaches to war.
The first word on Clausewitz's impact is that he has been an immeasurable influence on strategy. Clausewitz provided a theory on war asserting that war is a social phenomenon, being neither a science nor an art with its compound of "rational, irrational and non-rational forces".
His theory thus formulated serves not as a model, but a guide, for strategy formulation, which suggests not what, but how, to think about strategy. As Clausewitz emphasised, "Theory does not mean a "scaffolding" supporting man in action or a "positive direction for action It should educate the mind of the future leader in war, or rather guide him in his self-instruction, but not accompany him to the field of battle; just as a sensible tutor forms and enlightens the opening mind of a youth without keeping him in leading strings all his life".
Clausewitz accordingly exerted strong intellectual influence on Prussian, French and British military thought before World War I.
Naval strategists like Corbett and airpower theorists like Douhet owed their theorising to Clausewitz. Clausewitz's point about seeking out the enemy's centre of gravity resulted in these armies "idolising" the decisive battle and developing the cult of the offence.
The French doctrine of the "offensive a outrance" and the German plans for invading France in and founded on Clausewitz's "Plan of a War Designed to Lead to the Total Defeat of an Enemy" exemplify his direct impact on strategy.
For at the heart of it was an adherence to the "trinitarian" balance. Nuclear weapons have both invalidated and reaffirmed Clausewitz's thinking. The absolute war that Clausewitz considered an abstraction has become real with nuclear weapons.
Consequently, no nuclear war may be fought for any meaningful ends, if war is the continuation of policy by other means. Nevertheless, Clausewitz's theory has provided a framework for evaluating strategy for the nuclear age.Today, Bill, you’re talking with the Rev.
Dr. Yolanda Pierce, who is in her first year as the new dean of Howard University’s School of Divinity. What should we know about Dr.
May 08, · The president, in a commencement speech at Howard University, told the next generation of black activists that passion and outrage were not enough. We're looking for contributions to an exciting exhibition about #Bradford as part of the @BNM_Project. Get in touch about family photos, recordings, journals, or . Howard Giske is curator of photography at MOHAI and long-time friend of Al Smith. Jackie E. A. Lawson is a historian and founding member of the Black Heritage Society of .
Pierce? Bill Lamar: Laura, Dr. Pierce is a superstar. She really is. She is included in The Root’s Most Influential African-Americans. Jul 17, · Others aim to make enduring contributions in their careers.
If you’re a nonparent like Cecil H. Green, the founder of Texas Instruments, you leave vast sums of money to the world’s pre. Havent had a chance to do much photography recently but managed a few frames whilst out filming the other day.
Fulmar flying through a Rainbow on Stronsay. Jules Howard Verified account Find a topic you’re passionate about, and jump right in. Learn the latest.
We’re asking these young people to push their bodies at a level the average person will never be able to comprehend, will never do, refuses to do, and thinks is crazy.
Society is harder on [these athletes] than it . As the Ohio University Bobcats prepare to face the Howard University Bison in football this weekend, it’s also an opportunity to highlight an influential alumnus of both institutions – an African-American Athens native who eventually would contribute to the university’s future in a significant.
Utah State University Press; A Rhetoric of Reflection; A Rhetoric of Reflection edited by Kathleen Blake Yancey This collection makes a valuable contribution to rhetoric and composition studies by articulating current practices and theories and demonstrating how the field is evolving in response to new technologies, classroom exigencies.