Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Revolution and the growth of industrial society, — Developments in 19th-century Europe are bounded by two great events. The French Revolution broke out inand its effects reverberated throughout much of Europe for many decades.
History of Russia —96 Peter the Great — [ edit ] Peter the Great officially renamed the Tsardom of Russia as the Russian Empire in and became its first emperor. He instituted sweeping reforms and oversaw the transformation of Russia into a major European power.
Peter I the Great — played a major role in introducing Russia to the European state system. While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West,  compelling nearly the entire population to farm.
Only a small percentage lived in towns. The class of kholopsclose in status to slaveryremained a major institution in Russia untilwhen Peter converted household kholops into house serfsthus including them in poll taxation. Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks.
His attention then turned to the North. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport, except at Archangel on the White Seawhere the harbor was frozen for nine months a year.
Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden, whose territory enclosed it on three sides. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him to make a secret alliance in with Saxonythe Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden, resulting in the Great Northern War.
The war ended in when an exhausted Sweden asked for peace with Russia. Peter acquired four provinces situated south and east of the Gulf of Finland.
The coveted access to the sea was now secured. There he built Russia's new capital, Saint Petersburgto replace Moscow, which had long been Russia's cultural center.
Inhe turned his aspirations as first Russian monarch toward increasing Russian influence in the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea at the expense of the weakened Safavid Persians. He made Astrakhan the centre of military efforts against Persia, and waged the first full-scale war against them in — He replaced the old boyar Duma council of nobles with a nine-member Senate, in effect a supreme council of state.
The countryside was divided into new provinces and districts. Peter told the Senate that its mission was to collect taxes, and tax revenues tripled over the course of his reign.
As part of the government reform, the Orthodox Church was partially incorporated into the country's administrative structure, in effect making it a tool of the state. Peter abolished the patriarchate and replaced it with a collective body, the Holy Synodled by a government official.Russia followed the United States, Britain, and France in establishing relations with Japan, and, together with Britain and France, Russia obtained concessions from China consequent to the Second .
Nineteenth Century Russian Realism Unusual flourishing of Russian realistic literature in the second half of the 19th century was going on against the background of social and political distemper that started in the s, under the reign of Nicholas I (–).
Russia followed the United States, Britain, and France in establishing relations with Japan, and, together with Britain and France, Russia obtained concessions from China consequent to the Second Opium War (). During the second half of the seventeenth century, what country dominated culture, politics, and diplomacy?
France What characteristics were seen in Western European economy in the sixteenth century? The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, , and ended on December 31, The 19th century was a period of social change.
Slavery was abolished, and the Second Industrial Revolution led to massive urbanization and much higher levels of productivity, profit and benjaminpohle.comies: 18th century, 19th century, 20th century. As the 19th century progressed, instead of admiring distant European countries, Russian artists took renewed interest in Russia’s unique character.
As they moved away from Westernizing forces, Realism permeated Russian culture, as artists became interested in representing subjects from everyday life and from Russian history. With the rise in .