The term Realism applies no less to the plastic arts than to literature, but in painting and sculpture it proved difficult to give form overnight to the change of attitude just noticed in literature and political life.
They are, in fact, so individual that it is difficult to classify them at all, although peculiarities in the planning and buttressing of the outer walls gives them some similarity to the French cathedral of Albi begun Toward the end of the century, the influence of French ideas spread northward to Scandinavia, and in French architects were summoned to Sweden to rebuild Uppsala cathedral.
This style was characterized by the application of increasingly elaborate geometrical decoration to the structural forms that had been established during the preceding century. During the period of the Rayonnant style a significant change took place in Gothic architecture.
Until aboutGothic architects concentrated on the harmonious distribution of masses of masonry and, particularly in France, on the technical problems of achieving great height; after that date, they became more concerned with the creation of rich visual effects through decoration.
This decoration took such forms as pinnacles upright members, often spired, that capped piers, buttresses, or other exterior elementsmoldings, and, especially, window tracery. The most characteristic and finest achievement of the Rayonnant style is the great circular rose window adorning the west facades of large French cathedrals; the typically radial patterns of the tracery inspired the designation Rayonnant for the new style.
Another typical feature of Rayonnant architecture is the thinning of vertical supporting members, the enlargement of windows, and the combination of the triforium gallery and the clerestory until walls are largely undifferentiated screens of tracery, mullions vertical bars of tracery dividing windows into sectionsand glass.
Stained glass--formerly deeply colored--became lighter in color to increase the visibility of tracery silhouettes and to let more light into the interior. The most notable examples of the Rayonnant style are the cathedrals of Reims, Amiens, Bourges, Chartres, and Beauvais. The parallel Decorated Gothic style came into being in England with the general use of elaborate stone window tracery.
Supplanting the small, slender, pointed lancet windows of the early English Gothic style were windows of great width and height, divided by mullions into two to eight brightly colored main subdivisions, each of which was further divided by tracery.
At first, this tracery was based on the trefoil and quatrefoil, the arch, and the circle, all of which were combined to form netlike patterns.
Later, tracery was based on the ogee, or S-shaped curve, which creates flowing, flame like forms. Some of the most outstanding monuments of the Decorated Gothic style are sections of the cloister c. In France the Rayonnant style evolved about into an even more decorative phase called the Flamboyant style, which lasted until about In England a development known as the Perpendicular style lasted from about to The most conspicuous feature of the Flamboyant Gothic style is the dominance in stone window tracery of a flame like S-shaped curve.
In the Flamboyant style wall space was reduced to the minimum of supporting vertical shafts to allow an almost continuous expanse of glass and tracery.
Structural logic was obscured by the virtual covering of the exteriors of buildings with tracery, which often decorated masonry as well as windows. A profusion of pinnacles, gables, and other details such as subsidiary ribs in the vaults to form star patterns further complicated the total effect.
By the late Gothic period greater attention was being given to secular buildings. Thus, Flamboyant Gothic features can be seen in many town halls, guildhalls, and even residences. Other important examples of the style are the Tour de Beurre of Rouen Cathedral and the north spire of Chartres.
Flamboyant Gothic, which eventually became overly ornate, refined, and complicated, gave way in France to Renaissance forms in the 16th century.
In England the parallel Perpendicular Gothic style was characterized by predominance of vertical lines in the stone tracery of windows, an enlargement of windows to great proportions, and the conversion of the interior stories into a single unified vertical expanse.Transcript of Comparing Classical, Medieval and Renaissance Art.
Forms of Art Sculpture painted pottery murals mosaics CLASSICAL ART MEDIEVAL ART Forms of Art stained-glass windows sculptures illuminated manuscripts paintings tapestries RENAISSANCE ART Forms of Art sculptures murals drawings paintings. Characteristics of Northern Renaissance Art Contained great detail More landscape and nature paintings - usually darker and colder Oil painting on Canvas – allowed for vivid color Paintings are less secular.
More religious questioning. More scenes of daily life. A Comparison Between Medieval and Renaissance Art The most significant difference between medieval and renaissance art is that renaissance art paid more attention to the human body, and to detail.
Both, however, focused mainly on religious themes, although not necessarily Christian. Roman Architecture. Unlike the more creative and intellectual Greeks, the Romans were essentially practical people with a flair for engineering, construction and military matters.
Byzantine art refers to the body of Christian Greek artistic products of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, as well as the nations and states that inherited culturally from the empire.
Though the empire itself emerged from Rome's decline and lasted until the Fall of Constantinople in , the start date of the Byzantine period is rather clearer in art history than in political history, if. Flying Buttress and layout of a Gothic Cathedral. Photos, Gothic Cathedrals and Sculptures. Care to express an opinion on a current or past historical event?